A gemstone (also called a gem, fine gem, jewel, precious stone, or semi-precious stone) is a piece of mineral crystal which is in cut and polished form, it is used to make jewelry or other adornments.
The majority of gemstones are formed by metamorphism. This is when minerals are forced together under great pressure and heat usually by tectonic plates moving underneath eac
Rare Metals Identification & Prospections
Rare earths are a series of chemical elements found in the Earth's crust that are vital to many modern technologies, including consumer electronics, computers and networks, communications, clean energy, advanced transportation, health care, environmental mitigation, national defense, and many others.Rare earth metals and alloys that contain them are used in many devices that people use every day such as computer memory, DVDs, rechargeable batteries, cell phones, catalytic converters, magnets, fluorescent lighting and much more.
Rare earth elements (REEs) compose the lanthanide group of 15 elements in the periodic table, 14 of which occur in nature and one that does not occur in nature, promethium. Scandium and yrium are usually considered together with the REEs because of their similar geochemical characteriscs. Despite their name, REEs are relavely abundant in the earth's crust. However, because of their geochemical properes, rare earth elements are typically dispersed and not commonly found in concentrated and economically exploitable forms. Their industrial uses in emerging high and green-technology applicaons give them an immediate crical and strategic importance.